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Despite Western culture´s roots and much touted pride in its classical Greek and Roman legacy, the sexual freedoms of the ancient world have had no place in the official cultures of Western societies. As late as the 19th Century, homosexuality was the "love that dare not speak its name". In Censoring Sexuality, Paul Bailey examines and analyses the various kinds of censorship - political, literary, cultural - which have oppressed and silenced homosexual men and women. Such a history of censorship extends, of course, way beyond Europe. American puritanism has hugely impacted not only on the lives but also the art works of writers and film-makers whilst the moral values of Hollywood have influenced generations. Discussing artists as diverse as Marcel Proust, Benjamin Britten, WH Auden and Terence Rattigan, Saki and Ronald Firbank, Censoring Sexuality explores the true nature of "camp" and the rich tradition of subversive and comic art created by the censoring of the sexual.
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Herz, Michael and Peter Molnar. The Content and Context of Hate Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. The contributors to this volume consider whether it is possible to establish carefully tailored hate speech policies that are cognizant of the varying traditions, histories, and values of different countries. Throughout, there is a strong comparative emphasis, with examples (and authors) drawn from around the world. All the authors explore whether or when different cultural and historical settings justify different substantive rules given that such cultural relativism can be used to justify content-based restrictions and so endanger freedom of expression. Essays address the following questions, among others: Is hate speech in fact so dangerous or harmful to vulnerable minorities or communities as to justify a lower standard of constitutional protection? What harms and benefits accrue from laws that criminalize hate speech in particular contexts? Are there circumstances in which everyone would agree that hate speech should be criminally punished? What lessons can be learned from international case law?
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Klein, Marty. America's War on Sex: The Continuing Attack on Law, Lust, and Liberty. Westport: Praeger, 2012. Americans are more vulnerable today than ever to anxiety about sexual danger, to believing that their sexuality is not "normal" or moral, and to laws and public policies that restrict their rights, criminalize their consenting behavior, and confuse and miseducate their children. In the second edition of America's War on Sex: The Continuing Attack on Law, Lust, and Liberty, psychologist, sex therapist, and courtroom expert witness Marty Klein sets the record straight and uncovers how the "Sexual Disaster Industry" works—a powerful social and political propaganda machine that is supported by the very citizens it victimizes. This book analyzes eight "battlegrounds" in which America's War on Sex is being fought and examines how each one is the focus of an unrelenting struggle to regulate sexuality in direct contradiction to our Constitutional guarantees, scientific fact, and the needs of average Americans. Klein places these various attacks on our rights in historical context, explains how the money and political power are coordinated from the same sources, and shows how the Religious Right inflames Americans' anxiety about sexuality even as it proposes repressive schemes to reduce that anxiety. This book tackles a sensitive and volatile topic head-on, addressing how the political, social, historical, religious, and emotional issues surrounding public policy interfaces with sexuality as no other work has before.
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Latino americanes et luso-afro-bresiliennes, Universite de provence,centres derecherches, (ed.), "Le Theatre Sous la Contrainte", pp. 264, Universite deProvence, Aix-en Provence, France, 1988.
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Liptak, Adam. Freedom to Offend Outside U.S.; Hate Speech Can Be Costly. New York Times, June 12, 2008.
Lucie-Smith, Edward. Censoring the Body. London: Seagull Books, 2007. From the earliest times, human beings have found it difficult to represent their own bodies in a straightforward way. At the dawn of art, representations of the nude body focused almost entirely on fertility, with some cultures explicit and others rather more prudish about representing the unclothed body. With the coming of Christianity, representations of the nude became associated with the idea of the Fall of Man and original sin. This conflicted with the need to show nude or nearly nude bodies when representing episodes from the passion of Christ and the martyrdoms of popular saints. Today, representations of the nude remain a battleground, fought over by libertarians and anti-libertarians. Most recently, feminism has challenged images of the female nude, while an increasing moral panic now restricts the depiction of the naked child - images which would have been commonplace in the art of the Renaissance. Censoring the Body exposes our bodies and our ideas about our bodies, revealing the complex historical and cultural legacies which frame - and obscure - our vision.
Lund, Robert. Ridicule, Religion and the Politics of Wit in Augustan England. London: Ashgate Publishing, 2012. Arguing for the importance of wit beyond its use as a literary device, Roger D. Lund outlines the process by which writers in Restoration and eighteenth-century England struggled to define an appropriate role for wit in the public sphere. He traces its unpredictable effects in works of philosophy, religious pamphlets, and legal writing and examines what happens when literary wit is deliberately used to undermine the judgment of individuals and to destabilize established institutions of church and state. Beginning with a discussion of wit's association with deception, Lund suggests that suspicion of wit and the imagination emerges in attacks on the Restoration stage, in the persecution of "The Craftsman", and in criticism directed at Thomas Hobbes' "Leviathan" and works by writers like the Earl of Shaftesbury, Thomas Woolston, and Thomas Paine. Anxieties about wit, Lund shows, were in part responsible for attempts to suppress new communal venues such as coffee houses and clubs and for the Church's condemnation of the seditious pamphlets made possible by the lapse of the Licensing Act in 1695. Finally, the establishment's conviction that wit, ridicule, satire, and innuendo are subversive rhetorical forms is glaringly at play in attempts to use libel trials to translate the fear of wit as a metaphorical transgression of public decorum into an actual violation of the civil code.
MacPherson, Myra, "All Governments Lie: The Life and Times of Rebel Journalist I. F. Stone," Scribner, 2006.
Magee, James J. Freedom of expression. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Marcus, Laurence R. Fighting words: the politics of hateful speech. Westport, Conn : Praeger, 1996.
Marshik, Celia. British Modernism and Censorship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Matas, David. Bloody words: hate and free speech. Winnipeg: Bain & Cox, 2000.
Matsuda, Mari. Words that Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech, and the First Amendment. Boulder, CO.: Westview Press, 1993.
Matsuda, Mari. Where is your body?: and other essays on race, gender, and the law. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1996.
Monroe H. and Eric M. Freedman. Group defamation and freedom of speech: the relationship between language and violence. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1995.
Moretti, Daniel S. Obscenity and pornography: the law under the First Amendment. London; New York: Oceana Publications, 1984.
Muller, Beate, ed. Censorship & cultural regulation in the modern age. Amsterdam: Rodopi B.V., 2004.
MacArthur, John R; Bagdikian, Ben Haig, "Second Front: Censorship and Propagandain the Gulf War", University of California Press, Berkeley, 1993.
Manea, N., "The Concept of Censorship in Romania", "Temps Modernes", Vol 45, Iss 528, pp26-56, Temps Modernes, Paris, 1990.
Matheson, Peter. "Breaking the Silence: Women, Censorship and the Reformation," Sixteenth Century Journal (1996) 27:1, 97-109.
Maximo, "Carta Abierta a la Censura", "Collecion Carta Abierta", pp. 125, Ediciones 99, Madrid, 1974.
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Millas, Hernan, "Los senores censores", pp. 129, Ediciones Caperucita Rojasde Feroz: Distribudio por Editorial, Santiago, Chile, 1985.
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Murray, Bruce T. Religious Liberty in America: The First Amendment in Historical & Contemporary Perspective. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008.
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Noriega, Chon, "Something's Missing Here! Homosexuality...", "Cinema Journal", Vol. 30, no. 1 pp. 20-41, University of Illinois Press, Champaign, IL, Fall1990.
Nicholson, Steve. Censorship of British drama, 1900-1968. Exeter, UK: University of Exeter Press, 2003.
Nowlin, Christopher J. Judging obscenity: a critical history of expert evidence. Montreal; Ithaca, N.Y.: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2003.
Nuzum, Eric D., "Parental Advisory: Music Censorship in America", Quill, 2001.
Nzeribe, Atuchi and G.O., Ugochukwu (eds.), "Tell It As It Is", Lenjon Printers, Enugu, Nigeria, 1985?.
O'Brien, David. Congress Shall Make No Law: The First Amendment, Unprotected Expression, and the U.S. Supreme Court. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010.
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Oboler, Eli M., "The Fear of the Word: Censorship and Sex", pp. 362, Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, N.J., 1974.
Office for Intellectual Freedom, American Library Association, "Intellectual Freedom Manual", xxxiii., pp. 230, 3rd Edition, American Library Association, Chicago, 1989.
Parker, Richard A., ed. Free speech on trial: communication perspectives on landmark Supreme Court decisions. Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 2003.
Paseta, Senia. "Censorship and its critics in the Irish free state 1922-1932" in Past & Present. Nov. 2003, Issue 181, p193, 24p.
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Post, Robert. "Racist Speech, Democracy, and the First Amendment." 32 William and Mary Law Review 267 (1991).
Prados, John and Margaret Pratt Porter, ed. Inside the Pentagon papers. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 2004.
Paul, James C. N. and Schwartz, Murray L., "Federal Censorship Obscenity in the Mail", xv., pp. 368, Reprint, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 1977.
Peccegueiro, Alberto, "Publications in Brazil", "Print", Vol. 41, pp. 69-79, New York, November/December 1987.
Pipkin, Gloria; Lent, Releah Cossett; Ohanian, Susan, "At the Schoolhouse Gate: Lessons in Intellectual Freedom", Heinemann, Portsmouth, 2002.
Petley, Julian, "Taking Flak", "New Statesman and Society", Vol.4pp 30-31, Statesman and Nation Pub. Co. Ltd., London, April 5, 1991.
Polenberg, Richard. Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech…
Post, Robert, (ed.), Getty Research Institute, Roth, Michael (ed.), "Censorship and Silencing: Practices of Cultural Regulation", J Paul Getty Museum Publications, 1998.
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Randall, Margret, "When Imagination of Writer is Confronted..", "Latin American Perspectives", Vol. 16, No. 2, p. 115-23, Sage Periodicals Press, Newbury Park, CA, 1989.
Ripoll, Carlos, "Heresy of Words in Cuba", "Harnessing the Intellectuals: Censoring Writers & Artists in Cuba", pp. 59, Cuban American National Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1985.
Robertson, Geoffrey, "Obscenity an Account of Censorship Laws", "Law in Context", xviii, pp. 364, Weidenfeld and Nicholoson, London, 1979.
Rodgerson, Gillian and Wilson, Elizabeth (Feminists Against Censorship),"Pornography and Feminism: the case against Censorship", pp. 79, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1991.
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Ronald Collins and David Skover, The Trials of Lenny Bruce: The Rise and Fall of An American Icon
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Roth, Cecil, "The Spanish Inquisition", pp. 316, Norton, New York, 1964.
Rubin, Marian. Naked Truths. New York: Writer's Showcase, 2002. "the true story of a New Jersey grandmother who was arrested for taking innocent nude photos of her two young granddaughters."
Russomanno, Joseph. Speaking our minds: conversations with the people behind landmark First Amendment cases. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002.
Ryan, Margret and Mason, Stephen, "Censorship Procedure", pp. 98, Australian Law Reform Commission, Sydney, 1991.
Schachter, Madeleine. Law of Internet speech. Durham, N.C. : Carolina Academic Press, 2002.
Segal, Jonathan. The Expressive Workplace Doctrine: Protecting the Public Discourse from Hostile Work Environment Actions. 15 UCLA. Ent. L. Rev. 1 (2008).
Senate Special Committee on Pornographic Plays, California Legislature Senate," Investigation on 'The Beard' on CSU campus at Fullerton", pp. 200, Senate of the State of California, Sacramento, 1968.
Shapiro, Bruce, "From Comstockery to Helmsmanship", "The Nation", Vol. 251, no. 10, pp. 335, October 1, 1990.
Shariff, S. Censorship!...or Selection? The Netherlands: Sense Publishers, 2007.
Shelford, April. "Of Scepters and Censors: Biblical Interpretation and Censorship in Seventeenth Century France," French History 20 (2006): 161-181. In 1676 Pierre-Daniel Huet, scholar and tutor to the Dauphin, encountered difficulties with state censorship. Bishop Bossuet was blocking the publication of his Demonstratio evangelica, a recasting of an ancient Christian apologetic. The Sorbonne theologian and censor, Edme Pirot, was caught in the middle. An analysis of the interaction between these three men reveals Ancien Regime censorship as a series of negotiations shaped by the different stakes, personalities, ambitions and status of the participants. Huet and Bossuet’s quarrel also echoed the confessional debates of the sixteenth century and reflected disagreements within the Catholic Church thereafter. It raised such important questions as whether the Bible should be subjected to the same types of analysis as secular texts and anticipated concerns about the relationship between biblical criticism and the rise of irreligion. Throughout, Bossuet skillfully manipulated the mechanisms of state censorship to defend his vision of Church Tradition by delaying the publication of Huets Demonstratio and suppressing Richard Simons L histoire critique du Vieux Testament.
Shiell, Timothy C. Campus hate speech on trial. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998. Shils, Edward, "Remembering the Congress for Cultural Freedom", "Encounter", Vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 53, September 1990.
Shinder, Jason (ed.), "The Poem That Changed America: “Howl” Fifty Years Later," New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006.
Shuger, Debora. Censorship and Cultural Sensibility: The Regulation of Language in Tudor-Stuart England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. In this study of the reciprocities binding religion, politics, law, and literature, Debora Shuger offers a profoundly new history of early modern English censorship, one that bears centrally on issues still current: the rhetoric of ideological extremism, the use of defamation to ruin political opponents, the grounding of law in theological ethics, and the terrible fragility of public spheres. Starting from the question of why no one prior to the mid-1640s argued for free speech or a free press per se, Censorship and Cultural Sensibility surveys the texts against which Tudor-Stuart censorship aimed its biggest guns, which turned out not to be principled dissent but libels, conspiracy fantasies, and hate speech. The book explores the laws that attempted to suppress such material, the cultural values that underwrote this regulation, and, finally, the very different framework of assumptions whose gradual adoption rendered censorship illegitimate. Virtually all substantive law on language concerned defamation, regulating what one could say about other people. Hence Tudor-Stuart laws extended protection only to the person hurt by another's words, never to their speaker. In treating transgressive language as akin to battery, English law differed fundamentally from papal censorship, which construed its target as heresy. There were thus two models of censorship operative in the early modern period, both premised on religious norms, but one concerned primarily with false accusation and libel, the other with false belief and immorality. Shuger investigates the first of these models—the dominant English one—tracing its complex origins in the Roman law of iniuria through medieval theological ethics and Continental jurisprudence to its continuities and discontinuities with current U.S. law. In so doing, she enables her reader to grasp how in certain contexts censorship could be understood as safeguarding both charitable community and personal dignitary rights.
Sova, Dawn B. Banned Plays: Censorship Histories of 125 Stage Dramas. New York: Facts on File, 2004.
Snow, Nancy. Information War: American propaganda, free speech and opinion control since 9/11. New York: Seven Stories; London: Turnaround, 2003.
Soley, Lawrence, "Censorship Inc. The Corporate Threat to Free Speech in the United States", Monthly Review Press, New York, 2002.
Solly, Sue and Cutler, Terry, "To Deprave and Corrupt: Censorship in Australia", pp. 64, Lloyd O'Neil Pty Limited, Windsor, Victoria, 1975.
Sontag, Susan and Sale, Faith, "Letters...", "New Statesman and Society", Vol. 2, Iss: 38, pp. 9, Statement and Nation Pub. Co. Ltd., London, March24, 1989.
Springer, C., "The Aesthetics of Censorship-M. Haraszti", "The New Hungarian Quarterly", Vol 32, Iss 124, pp 150-152, Hungarian Quaterly, Budapest,1991.
Suma, Sarah F. Uncertainty & Loss in the Free Speech Rights of Public Employees Under Garcetti v. Ceballos. 83 Chi.-Kent. L. Rev. 369 (2008).
Sunstein, Cass. "Pornography and the First Amendment." 1968 Duke Law Journal 589.
Tariq, Ali, "Banned by the British...", "New Statesman and Society", Vol 4 pp 16-18, Statesman and Nation Pub. Co. Ltd., London, 1991.
Taylor, Charles, "Titicut Follies", "Sight and Sound", Vol. 57,pp.98-103, Spring 1988.
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Thompson, Sarah E., "Undercurrents in the Floating World", Catalogue for Asia Society Galleries, pp. 104, Asia Society Galleries, New York, 1991.
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Tricoire, Agnès. Petit traité de la liberté de création. Paris, La Découverte, 2011.
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United Press International, "U.S. Dancers Keep It Modest for Chinese","Chicago Tribune", October 31, 1985.
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Vianu, Lidia, "Censorship in Romania," Central European University Press, Budapest - New York, 1998.
Vogel, Ryan J. Free Speech in the War on Terror: Does the Military Commissions Act Violate the First Amendment. 15 Hum. Rts. Br. 18 (2008).
Wajnryb, Ruth, "Expletive Deleted," New York: Free Press, 2005.
Waldman, Emily Gold. Returning to Hazlewood’s Core: A New Approach to Restrictions on School-sponsored Speech. 60 Fla. L. Rev. 63 (2008).
Waldron, Jeremy. The Harm in Hate Speech. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012. Every liberal democracy has laws or codes against hate speech—except the United States. For constitutionalists, regulation of hate speech violates the First Amendment and damages a free society. Against this absolutist view, Jeremy Waldron argues powerfully that hate speech should be regulated as part of our commitment to human dignity and to inclusion and respect for members of vulnerable minorities. Causing offense—by depicting a religious leader as a terrorist in a newspaper cartoon, for example—is not the same as launching a libelous attack on a group’s dignity, according to Waldron, and it lies outside the reach of law. But defamation of a minority group, through hate speech, undermines a public good that can and should be protected: the basic assurance of inclusion in society for all members. A social environment polluted by anti-gay leaflets, Nazi banners, and burning crosses sends an implicit message to the targets of such hatred: your security is uncertain and you can expect to face humiliation and discrimination when you leave your home. Free-speech advocates boast of despising what racists say but defending to the death their right to say it. Waldron finds this emphasis on intellectual resilience misguided and points instead to the threat hate speech poses to the lives, dignity, and reputations of minority members. Finding support for his view among philosophers of the Enlightenment, Waldron asks us to move beyond knee-jerk American exceptionalism in our debates over the serious consequences of hateful speech.
Walker, Alice; Holt, Patricia, "Banned", Aunt Lute Books, San Francisco, 1996.
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Williams, Susan Hoffman. Truth, autonomy, and speech: feminist theory and the First Amendment. New York: New York University Press, 2004.
Williams, JA, "A Quick Hit at Racial Censorship", American Book Review, Vol.5, Iss 1, pp 7-7, Dept. of English, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 1982.
Wirenius, John F. First Amendment, first principles: verbal acts and freedom of speech. New York; London: Holmes & Meier, 2004.
Wolfson, Nicholas. Hate speech, sex speech, free speech. Westport, Conn. ; London : Praeger, 1998.
Zeinert, Karen, "Free Speech: From Newspapers to Music Lyrics (Issues in Focus)", Enslow Publishers, New Jersey, 1995.
Zeiser, William (ed.), "Censorship: 500 Years of Conflict", Oxford University Press, New York, 1984.
Zingo, Martha T. Sex/gender outsiders, hate speech, and freedom of expression: can they say that about me? Westport, Conn.; London: Praeger, 1998.
Abellan, Manuel L., "Censura y Creacion Literatura en Espana", "Temas deHistoria y Politica Contemporanea", Vol. 9, pp. 313, Ediciones Peninsula, Barcelona, 1980.
Adams, Helen R. Ensuring Intellectual Freedom and Access to Information in the School Library, Media Program. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2008.
Ashbee, Henry S., "Forbidden Books of the Victorians", Index Liborum Prohibitorum, pp. 239, Odyssey Press, London, 1970.
Asheim, L. "Not censorship, but selection." In Book Selection and Intellectual Freedom: Proceedings of the Second Conference on Intellectual Freedom. Whittier, California. Ed. Frederick Mosher. Chicago: American Library Association, 90-99, 1954.
Asheim, L. "Selection and censorship: a reappraisal." Wilson Library Bulletin 58 (November): 180-84, 1983.
Atkins, John, "Sex in Literature", 4 Vol. , Calder and Boyars, London, 1982.
Barco, Kathy and Valerie Nye. True Stories of Censorship Battles in America's Libraries. Chicago: American Library Association, 2012.
Barrier, N.G., "Banned: Controversial Lit. & Political Control in British India", Colombia University of Missouri Press, 1974.
Basbanes, Nicholas. A Splendor of Letters: the permanence of books in an impermanent world. New York: Harpercollins, 2003.
Bhattacarya, Hiranmaya, "Raj and Literature: Banned Bengali Books", pp. 229, Firma KLM, Calcutta, India, 1989.
Birn, Raymond. Royal Censorship of Books in Eighteenth-Century France. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2012. Today, we are inclined to believe that intellectual freedom has no greater adversary than the censor. In eighteenth-century France, the matter was more complicated. Royal censors envisioned themselves not as fulfilling a mission of state-sponsored repression but rather as guiding the literary traffic of the Enlightenment. By awarding pre-publication and pre-distribution approvals, royal censors sought to insulate authors and publishers from the scandal of post-publication condemnation by parliaments, the police, or the Church. Less official authorizations were also awarded. Though censors did delete words and phrases from manuscripts and sometimes rejected manuscripts altogether, the liberal use of tacit permissions and conditional approvals resulted in the publication and circulation of books that, under a less flexible system, might never have seen the light of day. In essence, eighteenth-century French censors served as cultural intermediaries who bore responsibility for expanding public awareness of the progressive thought of their time.
Blanshard, Paul, "The Right to Read", pp. 339, Beacon Press, Boston, 1955.
Blume, Judy (ed.), "Places I Never Meant to Be: Original Stories by Censored Writers," New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999.
Bosmajian, Haig, "Burning Books," McFarland & Company, Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, 2006
Bosmajian, Haig (editor). Censorship, Libraries, and the Law. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1983.
Boyer, Paul. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 2002.
Bowerman, George. Censorship and the Public Library. Whitefish: Literary Licensing, 2012.
Board of Censors Rhodesia & Board of Censors Zimbabwe, "Catalogue of Banned Books, Periodicals, Records", Board of Censors Rhodesia & Board of Censors Zimbabwe, Rhodesia and Zimbabwe, December 1967 - December 1975.
Bump, Myrna Marlene, "Censorship Practiced by High School Librarians...", pp.195, University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI, 1980.
Burton, Betsy, "The King’s English: Adventures of an Independent Bookseller," Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith, Publisher, 2005.
Byrne, Alex. "The End of History: censorship and libraries" in Australian Library Journal. May 2004, Vol. 53 Issue 2, p133, 19p.
Califia, Pat; Fuller, Janine (eds.), "Forbidden Passages: Writings Banned in Canada", Cleis Press, San Francisco, 1995.
Caravale, Giorgio. Forbidden Prayer: Church Censorship and Devotional Literature in Renaissance Italy. London: Ashgate Publishing, 2012.
Carefoot, Pearce J. Forbidden Fruit: Banned, Censored & Challenged Books from Dante to Harry Potter. Toronto: Lester, Mason & Bigg, 2007.
Cohen, Karl F., "Forbidden Animation: Censored Cartoons and Blacklisted Animatorsin America", McFarland & Company, Jefferson, 1998.
Cohen, Nick. You Can't Read This Book: Censorship in an Age of Freedom. London: Fourth Estate, 2012. From the fall of the Berlin Wall to the advert of the Web, everywhere you turn you are told that we live in age of unparalleled freedom. This is dangerously naïve. From the revolution in Iran that wasn’t to the imposition of super-injunctions from the filthy rich, we still live in a world where you can write a book and end up dead. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, the collapse of Communism, and the advent of the Web which allowed for even the smallest voice to be heard, everywhere you turned you were told that we were living in an age of unparalleled freedom. You Can't Read This Book argues that this view is dangerously naive. From the revolution in Iran that wasn't, to the Great Firewall of China and the imposition of super-injunctions from the filthy rich protecting their privacy, the traditional opponents of freedom of speech - religious fanaticism, plutocratic power and dictatorial states - are thriving, and in many respects finding the world a more comfortable place in the early 21st century than they did in the late 20th. This is not an account of interesting but trivial disputes about freedom of speech: the rights and wrongs of shouting 'fire' in a crowded theatre, of playing heavy metal at 3 am in a built-up area or articulating extremist ideas in a school or university. Rather, this is a story that starts with the cataclysmic reaction of the Left and Right to the publication and denunciation of the Satanic Verses in 1988 that saw them jump into bed with radical extremists. It ends at the juncture where even in the transgressive, liberated West, where so much blood had been spilt for Freedom, where rebellion is the conformist style and playing the dissenter the smart career move in the arts and media, you can write a book and end up destroyed or dead.
Cressy. "Book Burning in Tudor and Stuart England," Sixteenth Century Journal 36/2 (2005): 359-374.
Darnton, Robert. The Forbidden Best-Sellers of Pre-Revolutionary France. London: HarperCollins, 1996.
Delfattore, Joan, "What Johnny Shouldn't Read: Textbook Censorship in America", Yale University Press, New Heaven, 1994.
Ditchfield, Peter Harpson, "Books Fatal to Their Authors", pp. 244, B. Franklin, New York, 1970.
Dollimore, Jonathan, "Sex, Literature and Censorship", Polity Press, Cambridge, 2001.
Dubin, Steven, "Poisoned Pens and Rattled Sabers: Two Years of Defending a Book about Controversial Art," New Art Examiner, February, 1995: 26-29.
Esterow, Milton, "U.S.A. vs. One Book Called Ulysses", "Art News", Vol. 89, pp. 190, Art Foundation, Inc., New York, September 1990.
Farrer, J.A., "Books Condemned to Be Burnt", Elliot Stock, London, 1892.
Foerstel, Herbert. Banned in the U.S.A.: A Reference Guide to Book Censorship in School and Public Libraries. Westport: Greenwood Publishing, 2002.
Foxon, David, "Libertine Literature in England, 1660-1745", University Books, New Hyde Park, NY, 1965.
Godman, Peter. The Saint As Censor: Robert Bellarmine between Inquisition and Index. Leiden: Brill, 2000. The opening of the archives of the Roman Inquisition and of the Index of Prohibited Books, in January 1998, enables us to think afresh about the history of two organizations more notorious than understood. Both have been considered, almost exclusively, from the perspective of their victims, such as Galileo Galilei. This text uses sources of the Inquisition and Index to reconstruct the history of Roman censorship in its first, formative years from the standpoint of Galileo's judge, Robert Bellarmine. Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) was a censor for the Index and a "consultor" to the Holy Office, before becoming cardinal-inquisitor and (three centuries after his death) a saint and Doctor of the Church. His career provides a paradigm of how an intellectual could make his way to the top in Counter-Reformation Rome. Censored by Pope Sixtus V, Bellarmine responded by suppressing the pontiff's version of the Vulgate and by repressing the Sistine Index of Prohibited Books. An interpretation and re-evaluation of Galileo's first "trial" of Roman censorship is offered in this book, which is based on sources from the archives, which it edits and interprets.
Goldstone, Lawrence & Nancy, "Out of the Flames: The Remarkable Story of a Fearless Scholar, a Fatal History, and One of the Rarest Books in the World," New York: Broadway Books, 2002.
Goodman, Michael B., "Contemporary Literary Censorship: The Case of Burroughs' 'Naked Lunch'" pp. 330, Scarecrow, Metuchen, N.J., 1981.
Geller, Evelyn, "Forbidden Books in American Public Libraries (1876-1939)", pp. 234, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 1984.
Gillett, Charles R., "Burned Books", Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 1932 and1972.
Haight, Anne Lyon, "Banned Books, 387 B.C.-1978 A.D.", 4th edition, R.R.Bowker, New York, 1978.
Heady, Katy. Literature and Censorship in Restoration Germany: Repression and Rhetoric. Rochester: Camden House, 2009.
Jackson, Holbrook, "The Fear of Books", University of Illinois Press, 2001.
Jacobsens (ed.), "Index on Objectionable Literature", Vol. 7, Jacobsens, Pretoria, South Africa, 1967.
Karolides, Nicholas J. and Burress, Lee (eds.), "Celebrating Censored Books," pp. 120, Wisconsin Council of teachers of English, Racine, WI, 1985.
Karolides, Nicholas J.; Bald, Margaret; Sova, Dawn B; Wachsberger, Ken, "100 Banned Books: Censorship Histories of World Literature"
Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn. Books under Suspicion: Censorship and Tolerance of Revelatory Writing in Late Medieval England. South Bend: Notre Dame University Press, 2011.
Knuth, Rebecca, "Burning Books and Leveling Libraries: Extremist Violence and Cultural Destruction," Praeger Publishers, 2006.
Lankford, Ronnie D. Book Banning (At Issue Series). Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2007.
Llorens Castillo, Vicente, "Aspectos sociales de la literatura espanola (por) V.Llorens", "Literatura y Sociedad", Vol. 6, pp. 244, Castalia, Madrid, 1974.
London Writers and Scholars International, ed., "Index on Censorship", LondonWriters and Scholars International, London, 1972.
Loth, David Goldsmith, "The Erotic in Literature", pp. 256, J. Messner, NewYork, 1961.
McDonald, Peter D. The Literature Police: Apartheid Censorship and Its Cultural Consequences. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
MacKinnon, C. Only Words. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993.
Maclean, Ian. Scholarship, Commerce, Religion: The Learned Book in the Age of Confessions, 1560-1630. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012.
McClellan, Marilyn. Madeleine L’Engle: Banned, Censored & Challenged (Authors of Censored Books). Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2008.
McKeon, Richard, Merton, Robert K. and Gellhorn, Walter, "The Freedom to Read:Perspective & Program", pp. 110, R.R. Bowker for the National Book Committee, NewYork, 1957.
Milton, John. "Areopagitica." The complete prose works of John Milton. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.
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Patterson, Annabel. Censorship and Interpretation: The
Conditions of Writing and Reading in Early Modern England.
Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1984. dAnnabel
Patterson explores the effects of censorship on both writing and
reading in early modern England, drawing analogies and
connections with France during the same period. Raz-Krakotzkin,
Amnon. The Censor, the Editor, and the Text: The Catholic
Church and the Shaping of the Jewish Canon in the Sixteenth
Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press,
2007. In The Censor, the Editor, and the Text, Amnon
Raz-Krakotzkin examines the impact of Catholic censorship on the
publication and dissemination of Hebrew literature in the early
modern period. Hebrew literature made the transition to print in
Italian print houses, most of which were owned by Christians.
These became lively meeting places for Christian scholars, rabbis,
and the many converts from Judaism who were employed as editors
and censors. Popper, William. The Censorship of Hebrew Books.
New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1899. This book was originally
published prior to 1923, and represents a reproduction of an
important historical work, maintaining the same format as the
original work. While some publishers have opted to apply OCR
(optical character recognition) technology to the process, we
believe this leads to sub-optimal results (frequent typographical
errors, strange characters and confusing formatting) and does not
adequately preserve the historical character of the original
artifact. We believe this work is culturally important in its
original archival form. While we strive to adequately clean and
digitally enhance the original work, there are occasionally
instances where imperfections such as blurred or missing pages,
poor pictures or errant marks may have been introduced due to
either the quality of the original work or the scanning process
itself. Despite these occasional imperfections, we have brought it
back into print as part of our ongoing global book preservation
commitment, providing customers with access to the best possible
historical reprints. We appreciate your understanding of these
occasional imperfections, and sincerely hope you enjoy seeing the
book in a format as close as possible to that intended by the
original publisher. Raz-Krakotzkin examines the principles and
practices of ecclesiastical censorship that were established in
the second half of the sixteenth century as a part of this
process. The book examines the development of censorship as part
of the institutionalization of new measures of control over
literature in this period, suggesting that we view surveillance of
Hebrew literature not only as a measure directed against the Jews
but also as a part of the rise of Hebraist discourse and therefore
as a means of integrating Jewish literature into the Christian
On another level, The Censor, the Editor, and the Text explores the implications of censorship in relation to other agents that participated in the preparation of texts for publishing—authors, publishers, editors, and readers. The censorship imposed upon the Jews had a definite impact on Hebrew literature, but it hardly denied its reading, in fact confirming the right of the Jews to possess and use most of their literature. By bringing together two apparently unrelated issues—the role of censorship in the creation of print culture and the place of Jewish culture in the context of Christian society—Raz-Krakotzkin advances a new outlook on both, allowing each to be examined through the conceptual framework usually reserved for the other.
Roche, Daniel. "Censorship and the Publishing Industry." In Revolution in Print: The Press in France, 1775-1800, edited by Robert Darnton and Daniel Roche, 3-26. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
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Spalding, Paul. Seize the Book, Jail the Author: Johann Lorenz Schmidt and Censorship in Eighteenth-Century Germany. West Lafayette: Pursue University Press, 1998. Under the patronage of two south German nobles, Johann Lorenz Schmidt published an annotated translation of the Bible's opening books in 1735. The story of the controversy the work aroused and of its eventual suppression sheds light on many aspects of the eighteenth century, as well as the nature of censorship in our time.
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Johnson, William Bruce. Miracles and Sacrilege: Robert Rossellini, the Church, and Film Censorship in Hollywood. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012. Miracles and Sacrilege is the story of the epochal conflict between censorship and freedom in film, recounted through an in-depth analysis of the U.S. Supreme Court's decision striking down a government ban on Roberto Rossellini's film The Miracle (1950). In this extraordinary case, the Court ultimately chose to abandon its own longstanding determination that film comprised a mere 'business' unworthy of free-speech rights, declaring for the first time that the First Amendment barred government from banning any film as 'sacreligious.' Using legal briefs, affidavits, and other court records, as well as letters, memoranda, and other archival materials to elucidate what was at issue in the case, William Bruce Johnson also analyzes the social, cultural, and religious elements that form the background of this complex and hard-fought controversy, focusing particularly on the fundamental role played by the Catholic Church in the history of film censorship. Tracing the development of the Church in the United States, Johnson discusses the reasons it found The Miracle sacrilegious and how it attained the power to persuade civil authorities to ban it. The Court's decision was not only a milestone in the law of church-state relations, but it paved the way for a succession of later decisions which gradually established a firm legal basis for freedom of expression in the arts.
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Mitchell, W. J. T. What Do Pictures Want? Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005. Why do we have such extraordinarily powerful responses toward the images and pictures we see in everyday life? Why do we behave as if pictures were alive, possessing the power to influence us, to demand things from us, to persuade us, seduce us, or even lead us astray? According to W. J. T. Mitchell, we need to reckon with images not just as inert objects that convey meaning but as animated beings with desires, needs, appetites, demands, and drives of their own. What Do Pictures Want? explores this idea and highlights Mitchell's innovative and profoundly influential thinking on picture theory and the lives and loves of images. Ranging across the visual arts, literature, and mass media, Mitchell applies characteristically brilliant and wry analyses to Byzantine icons and cyberpunk films, racial stereotypes and public monuments, ancient idols and modern clones, offensive images and found objects, American photography and aboriginal painting. Opening new vistas in iconology and the emergent field of visual culture, he also considers the importance of Dolly the Sheep—who, as a clone, fulfills the ancient dream of creating a living image—and the destruction of the World Trade Center on 9/11, which, among other things, signifies a new and virulent form of iconoclasm. What Do Pictures Want? offers an immensely rich and suggestive account of the interplay between the visible and the readable. A work by one of our leading theorists of visual representation, it will be a touchstone for art historians, literary critics, anthropologists, and philosophers alike.
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Thomas, David and David Carlton and Anne Etienne. Theatre Censorship: From Walpole to Wilson. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Watney, Simon, "Democracy, Inc...", "Art Forum International", Vol.28, pp.20-22, Art Forum, New York, Summer 1990.
Woods, Michelle. Censoring Translation: Censorship, Theatre, and the Politics of Translation. New York: Continuum, 2012. Censoring Translation questions the role of textual translation practices in shaping the circulation and reception of foreign censored theatre. It examines three forms of censorship in relation to translation: ideological censorship; gender censorship; and market censorship. This examination of censorship is informed by extensive archival evidence from the previously unseen archives of Václav Havel's main theatre translator, Vera Blackwell, which includes drafts of playscripts, legal negotiations, reviews, interviews, notes and previously unseen correspondence over thirty years with Havel and central figures of the theatre world, such as Kenneth Tynan, Martin Esslin, and Tom Stoppard. Michelle Woods uses this previously unresearched archive to explore broader questions on censorship, asking why texts are translated at a given time, who translates them, how their identity may affect the translation, and how the constituents of success in a target culture may involve elements of censorship.
Worrall, David. Theatric Revolution: Drama, Censorship, and Romantic Period Subcultures 1773-1832. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Ziff, Trisha, "Restricted Visions: Images of Ireland"," AFTERIMAGE", Vol. 19, pp. 4-7, Visual Studies Workshop, Inc., Rochester, NY, February 1992.
Beaver, W. "The Dilemma of Internet pornography." Business and Society Review 105 (Fall 2000): 373-82.
Bissonnette, Susan Travis. "Smothering Free Speech: Filtering the World Wide Web" in Journal of Library Administration. 2003, Vol. 39 Issue 2/3, p. 87, 19p.
Crovitz, G. "China's web crackdown continues," Wall Street Journal, January 11, 2010, http://online.wsj .com/article/SB 1000 1424052748703948504574649021577882240.html.
Dautrich, Kenneth; Yalof, David. The Future of the First Amendment: The Digital Media, Civic Education and Free Expression Rights in America’s High School. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007.
Deibert, Ronald and John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain (editors). Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering. Boston: The MIT Press, 2008.
Endeshaw, Assafa. "Internet Regulation in China: The Never-ending Cat and Mouse Game" in Information & Communications Technology Law. Mar. 2004, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p41, 17p.
Kolbert, Kathryn; Mettger, Zak (eds.), "Justice Talking: Censoring the Web: Leading Advocates Debate Today's Most Controversial Issues", The New Press, New York, 2002.
Levmore, Saul and Martha C. Nussbaum (editors). The Offensive Internet: Speech, Privacy, and Reputation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011.
Lipschultz, Jeremy. Broadcast & Internet Indecency: Defining Free Speech. Philadelphia: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2007.
MacKinnon, Rebecca. Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom. New York: Basic Books, 2012.
Mehta, Michael. "Censoring Cyberspace" in Asian Journal of Social Science. 2002, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p319, 20 p. This paper explores how Canada and the United States of America have attempted to control of the flow of contentious material coming through the Internet. The paper focuses on the issue of controlling obscene material and provides several case-law examples to illustrate how attempts at censorship have evolved over the decades in both countries. It is concluded that censorship is a tool of the nation-state that is unlikely to significantly reduce the amount of contentious material crossing borders.
Morozov, Evgeny. The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom. New York City: PublicAffairs, 2012.
Nunziato, Dawn. Virtual Freedom: Net Neutrality and Free Speech in the Internet Age. Palo Alto: Stanford Law Books, 2009.
Ringmar, Erik. A Blogger’s Manifesto: Free Speech & Censorship in a Digital World. London: Anthem Press, 2007.
Rogers, Jacob. A Passive Approach to the Regulation of Virtual Worlds. 76 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 405 (2008).
Sobel, David, "Filters and Freedom 2.0: Free Speech Perspectives on Internet Content Controls", Electronic Privacy Information Center, Washington, 2001
Thierer, Adam and Clyde Wayne Crews, Jr., ed. Who rules the net? : Internet governance and jurisdiction. Washington, D.C. : Cato Institute, 2003.
Warf, Barney. "Geographies of global Internet Censorship," Geojournal, Vol. 76, No. 1, 2011.
Williams, Kara D. Public Schools vs. MySpace & Facebook: The Latest Challenge to Student Speech Rights. 76 U. Cin. L. Rev. 707 (2008).
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