"> Name: Steve Bantu Biko, South African Political Activist

Date:  1951 - 1975

Location:  Africa

SubjectPolitical/Economic/Social Opinion

MediumPublic Speech , Personal Opinion

Artist: Steve Bantu Biko

Confronting Bodies: South African government

Date of Action: 1960s through 1977

Specific Location: South Africa

Description of Artwork: Biko was a pioneer in the South African black power movement. He edited "Black Viewpoint," and wrote numerous articles to encourage black liberation. Biko was also a founding member of the Black Conciousness Movement (BCM) and the South African Students Organization.

Description of Incident: The BCM began in the 1960s after the government banned all progressive organizations. Biko himself was forbidden from publishing and organizing black community programs. The censor did not stop him from editing "Black Review," by listing a man named Ben Khoapa as the editor. Biko broke the law under the 90-day detention law by returning to Cape Town in 1977. He was arrested, tortured and died in police custody.

Results of Incident: BCM literature and activists were banned and detained following Biko's death. The police were not charged with criminal negligence.

Source: Censorship, A World Encyclopedia, ed. D. Jones

Submitted By: NCAC

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