Artist: David Horowitz, Conservative Activist
Confronting Bodies: College students throughout the United States
Date of Action: March 2001
Specific Location: University newspapers, college campuses
Description of Artwork: David Horowitz states reasons why he opposes reparations for slavery in the U.S. Among his reasons are that not all African-Americans have suffered because of the legacy of slavery, that African-Americans owe a debt to whites who ended slavery, and welfare benefits and racial preferences constitute a form of reparations.
Description of Incident: David Horowitz paid for his ad to be circulated in college newspapers throughout the United States.
Results of Incident: Many campus newspapers refused to run the ad. Those who included it in their papers experienced a range of reactions by students who regarded the ad as racist or "hate speech." The objections resulted in the destruction of thousands of newspapers by students at Brown University, formal apologies for running the ad at University of California-Berkeley, University of California-Davis and Arizona State, and protests at Duke University, University of Wisconsin and several others.
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