">Name: The Black Envelope
Artist: Norman Manea
Confronting Bodies: Council for Socialist Culture and Education
Date of Action: 1986
Specific Location: Romania
Description of Artwork: While Manea's writing does not criticize the leaders of the communist Romania he lived under directly, he does write about life under the regime. In "The Black Envelope," he not only writes on the negative aspects of daily life in contemporary Romania, but makes parallels to between it and Nazi Germany.
After the novel had been revised and rejected several times, the publisher found a new censor to look over it. This censor demanded even more outrageous revisions. He saw the link Manea had made between Romania and Nazi Germany. He demanded an anti-fascist movement be included, even though Romania never had one. Hitler and Stalin's differences were to be clearly defined. The negative view of daily life was ordered to be eliminated. Characters on the brink of suicide would need to be changed to be more positive.
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